International Journal of Psychological and Brain Sciences

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Symptoms and Risk Factors of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be characterized by impaired attention, hyperactivity or excessive motor activity, and impulsivity, which is disproportionate to age and the most common behavioral disorder in children and adolescents. Hyperactivity or excessive motor activity means an individual may seem to move about constantly, including in conditions when it is not appropriate, or excessively fidget, tap, or talk. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder frequently occurs with specific and global developmental and learning problems that include autistic spectrum disorders, difficulties with speech and language, motor co-ordination, and reading, as well as with a range of psychiatric disorders, notably oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and tic disorders. Long-term outcomes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be dangerous because they elevate the rates of serious accidental injury, medicine addiction, depression, school or occupational failure, and involvement in the criminal justice system. Hyperactivity or excessive motor activity can be characterized by being unable to concentrate on tasks, being unable to sit still, excessive physical movement, excessive talking, interrupting conversations, and acting without thinking. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with impairments in cognitive, academic, familial, and finally occupational domains of daily life functioning. Impaired social functioning can manifest as rejection by peers and conflicts with other children and adults. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is commonly associated with highly familial disorder, environmental and other modifiable risk factors such as prenatal substance exposures, heavy metal and chemical exposures, nutritional factors, and lifestyle and psychosocial factors.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Hyperactivity, Impulsivity, Inattention, Risk Factors, Symptoms

Gudisa Bereda. (2023). Symptoms and Risk Factors of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. International Journal of Psychological and Brain Sciences, 8(1), 10-12.

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Dunn G. A et al. Neuroinflammation as a Risk Factor for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. PharmacolBiochemBehav. 2019 July; 182: 22–34.
2. Danielson ML, Bitsko RH, Ghandour RM, Holbrook JR, Kogan MD, Blumberg SJ, 2018 Prevalence of Parent-Reported ADHD Diagnosis and Associated Treatment Among U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2016. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 47 (2), 199–212.
3. Sanchez CE, Barry C, Sabhlok A, Russell K, Majors A, Kollins SH, Fuemmeler BF, 2018 Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and child neurodevelopmental outcomes: a meta-analysis. Obes Rev 19 (4), 464–484.
4. Abolhassanzadeh M et al. The prevalence and risk factors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among the elementary school students in Ardabil, Iran, in 2011-2012. J Anal Res Clin Med, 2016, 4 (3), 146-52.
5. Amiri S, Fakhari A, Maheri M, Mohammadpoor AA. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in primary school children of Tabriz, North-West Iran. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2010; 24 (6): 597-601.
6. Froehlich TE, Lanphear BP, Epstein JN, Barbaresi WJ, Katusic SK, Kahn RS. Prevalence, recognition, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a national sample of S children. Arch PediatrAdolesc Med 2007; 161 (9): 857-64.
7. Skounti M, Philalithis A, Galanakis E. Variations in prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder worldwide. Eur J Pediatr 2007; 166 (2): 117-23.
8. Polanczyk G, de Lima MS, Horta BL, Biederman J, Rohde LA. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis. Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164 (6): 942-8.
9. Scheffler RM, Hinshaw SP, Modrek S, Levine P. The global market for ADHD medications. Health Aff (Millwood) 2007; 26 (2): 450-7.
10. Foy JM, American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Mental Health. Enhancing pediatric mental health care: report from the American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Mental Health. Introduction. Pediatrics. 2010; 125 (suppl 3): S69–S174.
11. Faraone S. V et al. Genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Molecular Psychiatry (2019) 24: 562–575.
12. Chen W, Zhou K, Sham P, Franke B, Kuntsi J, Campbell D, et al. DSM-IV combined type ADHD shows familial association with sibling trait scores: a sampling strategy for QTL linkage. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008; 147B: 1450–60.
13. Nikolas MA, Burt SA. Genetic and environmental influences on ADHD symptom dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity: a meta-analysis. J Abnorm Psychol. 2010; 119: 1–17.
14. Langner I, Garbe E, Banaschewski T, Mikolajczyk RT. Twin and sibling studies using health insurance data: the example of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PLoS ONE. 2013; 8: e62177.
15. Larsson H, Asherson P, Chang Z, Ljung T, Friedrichs B, Larsson JO, et al. Genetic and environmental influences on adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: a large Swedish population-based study of twins. Psychol Med. 2013; 43: 197–207.