Keywords

Tharu, medicinal ethnobiology, IK, dekhatbhuli, conservation.

Introduction

Himalayan country of Nepal is well known for her richness in biodiversity and the indigenous knowledge of different ethnic groups. The term ‘ethnic groups’ means the people living in one particular community since very long and it has assumed to have its own indigenous traditional knowledge. The study of all the aspects of these communities in a scientific way is, therefore, known as ethno-biology. The word ‘ethnobiology’ means the multidisciplinary scientific study of the folk knowledge and cultural practices embodied in traditional medical systems, with particular emphasis on the uses of natural and biological resources in the maintenance and restoration of normal functioning of human health (Berlin and Berlin, 2005). Manandhar (2002) showed that still due to the inaccessibility to the modern facilities about 70-80% of the total population of the country depends upon a wide range of medicinal plants and animals for their primary healthcare. Traditional medicines play an important role in maintaining the health care system in developing countries (Thapa et al., 2013).

There are all total 125 different ethnic groups and 123 languages spoken as mother languages in Nepal (CBS, 2011). The study area comprises both the Tharu communities (Dangaura and Rana tharu) whose population all over the country is 6.6% i.e. 1,737,470. Of them, 18,578 people lives in Dekhatbhuli Kanchanpur (NPHC, 2011).

Indigenous people such as, rural communities, tribes, and ethnic societies have invaluable bank of knowledge, which is passed on verbally from one generation to another (Singh, 1995). Likewise, Tharu people are also very much rich in traditional ethnobiological knowledge. It is fact that if we are able to conserve forest ecosystem and take our great concern on climate change and, therefore, medicinal ethno-biology, it is certain that our country will get economically enhanced. For this we all have to think about different anthropological activities that promotes rapid climatic alteration and put the biodiversity in verge of extinction.

However, one of the local healers, Keshar Rana (aged 80) lamented in the point that the medicinal organisms which were found easily in past years are hard to get in these days. He added, youngsters are not keen in this traditional knowledge and if this process is continued, he said that this indigenous knowledge will lost in sooner coming future.

Figure 1: One of the local healer, Keshar Rana (aged 80)

Figure 1: One of the local healer, Keshar Rana (aged 80)

He insisted that rising climate is the principal cause for extinction of the locally available medicinal organisms. Previously Nepal is exporting the medicines locally available in an illegal way, he added but due to lack of knowledge to conserve habitat, forest resources that were found in past days has extinct.

Materials and Methods

Study Area

Dekhatbhuli predominately possesses Tharu community (both Dangaura and Rana). It lies in Kanchanpur district of Sudurpaschim province. It is between latitudes 280 50’ N and longitude of 800 24’E. The Dekhatbhuli area lies in to three municipalities’ viz. Krishnapur Municipality, Suklaphanta Municipality and Laljhadi Rural Municipality. The elevation ranges from 160 m to 184 m (The Siwalik Hills). The average annual rainfall of the district is 1775 mm. The average maximum temperature is 43°C while the average minimum temperature is 3°C.

Figure 2: Map of Kanchanpur district Methodology.

Figure 2: Map of Kanchanpur district Methodology.

Primarily the simple random sampling was applied for the selection of interviewees. Then the field visit was conducted in five shifts during the range of three months from October 1 to December 30 of the year 2018.

Primary data was obtained using key informant interview technique with faith healers’ (Bharras and Guruwas) and other local stakeholders, teachers etc., following questionnaire method. Then the documented data were analyzed through pie-charts, bar-graphs etc., using MS Excel spread sheet, and during the course no animals and plants were harmed.

Results

Medico-ethno-zoology

Figure 2: The number of animals belonging to different classes.

Figure 3: The number of animals belonging to different classes.

Figure 3: Habitat of Animals Collected.

Figure 4: Habitat of Animals Collected.

Fig 4: Types of diseases cured by animals in numbers

Figure 5: Types of diseases cured by animals in numbers.

22 animal species (68.18% wild, 27.27% domesticated and 4.55% other) including 20 families were documented to be used by TEG for treating 25 different ailments. The animals used by TEG in traditional medicinal practices were as: 10 species belonged to class Mammalia, seven to Aves, one to Insecta, Reptilia, Pisces, arthopoda and amphibian each.

15 species were used in curing single ailment while 7 of them were used for multiple diseases.

Medico-ethno-botany

Figure 6: Habitat of plant species

Figure 6: Habitat of plant species.

Figure 7: Types of diseases cured by plants.

Figure 7: Types of diseases cured by plants.

Figure 8: Plant life form in numbers.

Figure 8: Plant life form in numbers.

Figure 9: Plant parts used for medicinal purposes

Figure 9: Plant parts used for medicinal purposes.

103 species of plants were documented to be used by TEG among which 51 species were herbs, 28 species were trees, 13 were shrubs, and 11 were climber. These were used to cure 86 different ailments. Among these plants, 42.7% were cultivated, 41.74% were wild and 15.56% of them were both wild and cultivated. 50.49% of documented plants were used for curing multiple diseases while 49.51% were used for single diseases only. Likewise, the most part of the plants used for this purpose is found to be leaf and is followed by other parts such as root, fruit, rhizome etc., as shown in fig. 8.

Table 1: Animals having medicinal values in Tharu ethnic group of Dekhatbhuli, Kanchanpur.

S. N Order Family Scientific name Nepali/ Habit Parts/ Name of the
1 Artiodactyla Bovidae Bos indicus Local name Domestic products ailment/disease treated
2 Artiodactyla Bovidae Bubalus bubalis Cow/Gaiya Domestic used Skin disease, Hand/ leg sprain
3 Artiodactyla Suidae Sus scrofa Buffalo/ Domestic Urine, Milk Body pain, leg and
4 Galliformes Phasanidae Gallus gallus domesticus Baisiya Domestic Dung, mouth cracked
5 Lagomorpha Leporidae Orgodactylus sp. Pig/ Soura Domestic Butter Chest pain
6 Columbiformes Columbidae Columba livia Chicken/ Domestic Mouth parts Menstural disorder,
7 Galliformes Phasanidae Pavo cristata Murga/Murgiya Wild Egg, Cold, Snake bite,
8 Accipitriformes Accipitridae Gyps sp. Rabbit/ Kharahaa Wild Blood, Pneumonia
9 Passeriformes Passeridae Passer domesticus Pigeon / Parewa Wild Meat Asthma
10 Passeriformes Corvidae Corvus macrorhynchos Peacock/ Mulla Wild Meat Muscular pain and Cold
11 Artiodactyla Cervidae Axis axis Vulture/ Giddha Wild Meat Heart pain
12 Hymenoptera Apidae Apis cerana Bhagera Wild Bone Fracture
13 Strigiformes Strigidae Athene noctua Gagaya Wild Bone/Abdomen diminished sexual power
14 Carnivora Canidae Canis aurens Jungle crow/ Kauwa Wild Meat Impaired speaking in children
15 Probacidea Elephantiadae Elephas maximus Spotted deer /Hirian Wild Tounge Fracture, Bone
16 Rodeatia Hystricidae Hystrix indica Honey bee Saahat Wild Antlers, Meat
17 Squamata Agamidae Calotes versicolor Owl/ Khasutar Wild Honey, wax, larva Strengthening Blurred vision
18 Decapoda Cancridae Cancer pagurus Jackal /Sera/Seriya Wild Eye(pesera) Cough, Pneumonia,
19 Decapoda Palaemonidae Paleomon malcolmsonii Elephant Hatiya/Hatini Wild Fat, Meat Weakness
20 Anura Ranidae Rana tigrina Porcupine /Sehi Wild Dung Eye problem
21 Primates Cercopithecidae Maccaca mulata Garden lizard/ Khirkhando Wild Meat Rheumatism(Baath)

Table 2: Plants having medicinal values in Tharu ethnic group of Dekhatbhuli, Kanchanpur.

S.N Name Habitat Scientific name Plant life form Family Order Part used Medicinal applications Procedure of application
1. Aakashbeli (N/Th) C Cuscuta reflexa Climber Convolvulaceae Solanales Whole plant Bone fracture Grinded finely and applied.
2. Aakh (N/Th) W Calotropis procera Shrub Asclepiadaceae Gentianales Whole plant #Bakhra ko pet fulne rog Given to the goats.
3. Aap (N)/ Aam (Th) C Magnifera indica Tree Anacardiaceae Sapindales Leaf Diarrhea, dysentery Soup of bark and leaf is taken.
Bark Common cold, diarrhea
4. Aduwa (N)/Adrak (Th) C Zingiber officinale Herb Zingiberaceae Zingiberales Rhizome Indigestion, cough and throat pain Eaten directly or in vegetables.
5. Amala (N)/Aura(Th) C/W Emblica officinalis Tree Euphorbiaceae Malpighiales Bark Asthma, jaundice and swollen Bark powder is mixed with Barro and Harro and then eaten.
6. Amba(N/Th) C/W Pisidium guajava Tree Myrtaceae Myrtales Soft tips Headache Soft tips are grinded and applied to nose.
7. Anar(N)/Dadim (Th) C Punica gromatum Tree Puniaceae Myrtales Fruit Diarrhea and tonic Eaten directly or sometimes filtrate is also used.
8. Azwain(N/Th) C Trachyspermum ammi Herb Apiaceae Apiales Fruit Lactation and menstrual cramps Soup is prepared and eaten.
9. Badai (Th) W Tree Stem Infertility Hanged over neck for weeks.
10. Badam(N)/ Mumfali(Th) C Arachis hypogaea Herb Fabaceae Fabales Fruit Tonic and appetite Directly eaten.
11. Ban pyaj(Th) W Urginea indica Herb Amaryllidaceae Liliales Rhizome Fever Eaten orally.
12. Ban tarul(Th) W Dioscorea bulbifera Climber Dioscoreaceae Dioscoreales Rhizome and stem Piles Eaten orally by frying.
13. Banda Gobi (N) C Brassica oleraceae Herb Brassicaceae Brassicales Leaf Cardiotonic, stomachic Leaf and seed is eaten along with vegetables
Seed diuretic, laxative, stomachic
14. Bandralathi (Th) W Cassia fistula L. Tree Fabaceae Fabales Leaf and root #Navi sujan Paste is applied.
15. Barro (N)/ Bahera(Th) W Terminalia bellirica Tree Combrefaceae Myrtales Bark Asthma and swollen Bark powder is mixed with Amala and Harro and then eaten.
16. Basil (N/Th) W Ocimum basilicum Herb Labiateae Lamiales Leaf Tonsillitis Leaf paste is applied.
17. Bayer(N/Th) W Zizyphus mauritiana Tree Rhamnaceae Rosales Leaf Scorpion bite Grinded leaf is applied to the bitten part.
Root Parasitic attack on cattle Root soup is given to the cattles.
18. Bela phul(Th) W Jasminum sambac Shrub Oleaceae Lamiales Flower Stomach pain #BELA ROG Flower is squeezed and its exudation is eaten orally.
19. Besar(Th) C Curcuma longa Herb Zingiberaceae Zingiberales Rhizome Cough Eaten orally or by making its soup.
20. Bethi(N)/ Bethu(Th) C Chenopodium album Herb Chenopodiaceae Caryophyllales Leaf Joint pain and cough Eaten in vegetables.
21. Bhang(N)/ Bhangauta(Th) C/W Cannabis sativa Herb Cannabaceae Rosales Leaf and fruits Murmuring in goats Applied along with neem.
Leaf Cut Grinded leaf exudation in applied to the cut part.
Fruits Stomach pain and indigestion. Its fruits are filled in a cigarette and smoked orally.
22. Bhanta(N)/ Bhata (Th) C Solanum melongana Herb Solanaceae Solanales Root Testes swollen Paste is applied along with Gurjebelo.
23. Bijaya Saal(N/Th) W Pterocarpus marsupium Tree Fabaceae Fabales Wood, latex, and young stem Asthma, headache, body ache, stomachache, skin disease Solid part is grinded and applied while the latex is applied surfacely.
24. Bishkhapra (Th) W Trianthema portulacastrum Herb Aizoaceae Caryophyllales Soft tips Ripening (Pilo) Grinded very finely and applied to the infected part.
25. Bojho(Th) W Acorus calamus Herb Araceae Acorales Rhizome and leaf Common cold, fever, toothache, headache, body pain, cough Eaten or soup is applied to forehead.
26. Botali (Th) W Herb Root Dysentery Eaten by making its soup.
27. Chameli(N/Th) C Jasminum gracile Shrub Oleaceae Lamiales Oil and flower Sedative, antidepressant and antiseptic Oil is used as an ointment.
28. Chadi (Th) W Tree Leaf Scabies Grinded finely and applied.
29. Chamomille (Th) C Matricaria recutita Herb Compositae Asterales Oil Joint pain and cosmetics Oil is mixed with other chemical and applied
30. Chichindo (N/Th) C Trichosanthes cucumerina anguina Climber Cucurbitaceae Cucurbitales Fruit Antihelmintic and purgative Fruits are eaten.
31. Chirchira or chhatisa (Th)/ Apamarga (N) W Achyranthes aspera Tree Amaranthaceae Caryophyllales Leaf Infertility, Dhatu rog and testes swollen Leaf paste is applied and for infertility its leaf soup is eaten.
Root Marasmus, Swellen and paining of fingers #Gadha barma Root paste is eaten or applied.
Bark Diarrhea, dysentery Bark boiled and soup is eaten.
Whole plant Parasitic attack on cattles, scabies,diarrhea,urinary disorders, snake bite, scorpion sting, dysuria Grinded finely and applied to the relevant part.For cattles, it is given by mixing with grasses.
Stem Toothache, bone fracture Grinded finely and applied to the relevant part.
Spines Delivery problems Spines are shown to the person in labour pain.
32. Chito (Th) W Plumbago Zeylanica Shrub Plumbaginaceae Caryophyllales Leaf #Navi Sarne rog Paste is used.
33. Chuk(N/Th) C/W Citrus spp. Tree Rutaceae Sapindales Root Worm attack Paste is applied.
34. Chukuli (Th) W Shrub Stem and leaf #Aakha ma phulo parne rog Stem and leaf are grinded finely and exudation is applied to eyes.
Leaf Toothache Leaf in applied to the teeth to recover tooth pain.
35. Chyau(N/Th) W Agaricus bisporus Herb Fungus spp. Whole plant Measles Soup is eaten by cooking it adequately.
36. Citrinella (Th) C Cymbopogon winterianus jowin Herb Gramineae Poales Oil Mosquito and snake repeller Mosquito repeller candles are prepared by mixing citrinela oil and the candle is burn on desired place
37. Dhaniya (N/Th) C Coriandrum sativum Herb Umbelliferae Apiales Leaf Allergy Leaf paste is used.
Seed Common cold Eaten by mixing in vegetables.
38. Dhaturo(N) / Dhatura(Th) C/W Datura metel Herb Solanaceae Solanales Leaf Swollen Paste extract is applied.
Fruits Rabies and joint pain Its fruits are grinded and paste id applied to the bitten part.
39. Doobo(N)/ Dubarra(Th) W Cynodon dactylon Herb Gramineae Poales Whole plant Cuts and wounds Finely masticated and applied to the cut part.
40. Dudhi(Th) W Euphorbia hirta Herb Euphorbiaceae Malpighiales Latex Swollen Directly applied.
41. Ek patiya(Th) W Ophioglossum spp. Herb Ophioglossaceae Ophioglossales Fruit Kidney stone and in Dhatu rog For dhatu rog, ek patiya along with chirchira and mice and goat fecal matter plus mircha’s soup is eaten to recover it.
42. Gahat (N/Th) C Dalichos biflorus Herb Fabaceae Seed Kidney stone Eaten as a pulse to cure kidney stone.
43. Gajar(N/Th) C Daucus carota Herb Umbelliferae Apiales Whole plant Painful urination, dysmenorrhea, abscesses, itching and ulcer It is eaten.
44. Ganhaune jhar (N)/ Gindhuwana (Th) W Ageratum conyzoides Herb Asteraceae Asterales Leaf Cut Plant exudation is applied to the cut part.
45. Gilaujal or Gadpatta (Th) W Shrub Leaf Gastritis Soup of the leaf is eaten
46. Ghyeukumari (N/Th) C Aloe vera Herb Liliaceae Asparagales Whole plant Burning, gastritis and sugar Its paste is applied to cure burning sensation.
47. Gulab(N/Th) C/W Rosa indica Tree Rosaceae Rosales Flower Ear problem Flower juice is applied to the ear.
48. Gurj(Th) W Tinospora sinensis Shrub Menispermaceae Ranunculales Stem Constipation in animals Given to the animals along with grasses.
49. Haddijor (N/Th) W Vitis quadrangularis Herb Vitaceae Vitales Whole plant Fracture Paste is applied to the fractured part by chicken feather.
50. Haldi (N/Th) C/W Curcuma caesia Herb Zingiberaceae Zingiberales Rhizome Common cold and as a cosmetic For common cold, first it needs to boil and then masticated finely and eaten by mixing with Chuk.
Leaf Cut Powder is put into the cut part.
Leaf Headache Grinded finely and applied to the nose.
51. Harelu W Herb Leaf Toothache It’s placed to the aching tooth.
52. Harro(N) / Harra(Th) W Terminalia chebula Tree Combretaceae Myrtales Bark Asthma Bark powder is eaten along with Barro and Amala.
53. Jakhambel(Th) W Capparis zeylanica Climber Capparaceae Brassicales Root Stomach pain and swollen(leg) Paste is applied to the leg and its soup is eaten for stomach pain.
Leaf and stem #Saat mukhe phoda Paste is applied to the infected part.
54. Jharbaira(Th) W Zizyphus rugosa Tree Rhamnaceae Rosales Root Stomach pain Soup of root is eaten orally.
55. Kagati(N/Th) C/W Citrus aurantifolia Tree Rutaceae Sapindales Juice Stomach disorder, cough, cold, pimples and dandruff Directly eaten or in mixing with tea.
Leaf Skin disorder Leaf paste is applied to the skin.
56. Kera(N)/ Kela (Th) C Musa paradissica Herb Musaceae Zingiberales Leaf Nodal pain Its pen like structure, called Chhiya in their language, is first of all dipped in to the coal and then burned in a fire and applied to the muscle.
57. Khair (N) W Acacia catechu Tree Fabaceae Fabales Bark Sore throat and infection in mouth, Asthama Bark paste is applied or extract is drunk.
58. Koiralo (N) C/W Bahunia variegata Tree Fubaceae Bark and flower Digestion problem, ulcer and in goiter. Buds are given for digestive problem and ulcer and bark is given to remove goiter.
59. Kurilo(N)/ Kurla or Satawor(Th) C/W Asparagus racemosus Climber Liliaceae Asparagales Root pain killing, milk enhancer Root paste is eaten by mixing with vegetables.
60. Kuvindo(N)/ Kumda(Th) C Benincasa hispida Climber Cucurbitaceae Cucurbitales Root Stomach pain Eaten by cooking.
61. Lalpyari(Th) C Herb Root TB Soup is eaten.
62. Lasun(N/Th) C Allium sativum Herb Liliaceae Asparagales Rhizome Scabies Paste is applied to the infected part.
Gastritis Directly eaten with water.
Headache Grinded finely and applied to the forehead.
63. Lazzawati (N/Th) W Mimosa pudica Herb Mimosaceae Fabales Root Cut and wound Root paste is applied to the cut and wound part.
64. Lemongrass (Th) C Cymbopogon flexousus Herb Gramineae Poales Oil Cosmetic, scent and as a mosquito repeller oil is sprayed.
65. Liptis(N/Th) C Liparis elliptica Tree Orchidaceae Asparagales Leaf extract Burns and fever Leaf paste is applied.
66. Masupeda (Th) C/W Tree Leaf Cut and wound Leaf paste is applied to the cut part.
67. Mehandi(N/Th) C Lawsonia inermis Tree Lytheraceae Myrtales Leaf #Kachhuwa rog and #gola rog Its soup is first of all mixed with sweets and applied.
68. Mentha(Th)/ Pudina(N) C/W Mentha arvensis Herb Labiatae Lamiales Whole plant Common cold, headache, body pain Mentha extract is used as ease they can
69. Methi(N/Th) C Trigonella foenumgraecum Herb Fabaceae Fabales Whole plant Pneumonia Eaten by adding in vegetables.
70. Mewa(N) / Papita (Th) C Carica papaya Herb Cariaceae Brassicales Fruits Jaundice Fruit is eaten orally.
Latex Scabies Latex is applied to the infected part.
71. Mula (N/Th) C Raphanus sativus Herb Cruciferae Brassicales Leaf vein Scorpion bite It is grinded and filled in a cigar and smoked.
Rhizome Jaundice Eaten orally.
72. Mung(N) / Masul (Th) C Vigna radiate Herb Fabaceae (Leguminaceae) Fabales Fruits Lactation Its soup is eaten orally.
73. Nariwol(N/Th) C Cocos nucifera Tree Arecaceae Arecales Latex Scabies Latex is applied to the infected part.
Fruit /bark #Gola and #Kachhuwa rog Hukka ma halera khaney
74. Neem(N/Th) C/W Azadirachta indica Tree Meliacaceae Sapindales Leaf Allergy Leaf paste is applied to the infected part.
75. Nirbisi (Th) C Herb Root and leaf Swollen and #Saat mukhe foda Applied by grinding finely.
76. Okhar(N/Th) C Juglans regia Tree Juglandaceae Sapindales Fruit Headache Seed is applied to the aching part.
77. Padamchal (N/Th) W Rheum moorcroftianum Herb Polygonaceae Caryophyllales Root Cut Root paste is applied to the cut part.
78. Palungo (N/Th) C Spinacia oleracea Shrub Amaranthaceae Caryophyllales Leaf and root Cut and wounds Root paste and leaf juice is applied to the cut and wound part.
79. Pamakhar(Th) W Cassia tora Shrub Fabaceae Fabales Leaf Sleep bring By placing its leaf under the pillow while sleeping.
80. Pathariya (Th) C Herb Whole plant Kidney stone Paste extract is used orally.
81. Parmal(N)/ Kundru(Th) C Trichosanthes dioica Climber Cucurbitaceae Cucurbitales Fruit #Gadha barma Grinded finely and applied.
82. Peeper(Th) W Piper longum Herb Piperaceae Piperales Leaf and stem Babasheer and asthma, In mixing with titekareli and kali mircha along with old sweets.
83. Puthaliya (Th) C Brassica rapa Shrub Cruciferae Brassicales Root Lactation enhancer Eaten by boiling it.
84. Pyaj (N/Th) C/W Allium cepa Herb Liliaceae Asparagales Rhizome Fever,cold, high blood pressure It is eaten along with vegetables.
85. Ratgal or rato phul (Th) W Iris milesii Shrub Iridaceae Asparagales Rhizome Stomach disorder Rhizome soup is eaten.
86. Saal(N/Th) W Shorea robusta Tree Dipterocarpaceae Malvales Root Diarrhea and dysentery Root decoction is orally given.
Bark Cut, wound and fracture Bark paste is applied.
Earache It is applied to the earache as eardrop.
87. Sakharkhand C/W Ipomoea batatas Climber Convolvulaceae Solanales Rhizome Appetite enhancer, lactation Eaten after boiling or in mixing with vegetables.
88. Sallo (N)/ Dhoop (Th) W Pinus spp. Tree Pinaceae Pinales Resin Scorpion bite It is applied to the bitten part.
89. Sanserbed W Shrub Root and leaf Gastritis and eye vision enhancer Root extract is eaten orally for gastritis and for eye vision leaf exudation is applied to the eye.
90. Satbaruwa C Herb Root and leaf Fever and tuberculosis Leaf and root paste is used for fever and supernatant is used for Tuberculosis.
91. Sarifa/Slifa (N)/ Sitaphal (Th) W Annona squamosa Tree Annonaceae Magnoliales Fruit Infection in hair Fruit paste is applied to the hairs.
92. Semi (N/Th) C Phaseolus vulgaris Climber Leguminosae Fabales Leaf Scabies and oversleeping(#suknidiya) Leaf paste is applied in scabies and applied to head to remove oversleeping
93. Sisham (N/Th) W Dalbergia sissoo Tree Fabaceae Fabales Root Diarrhoea and dysentery Root paste extract is drunk.
94. Sisnu (N/Th) W Utrica dioica Herb Utricaceae Rosales Root and leaf Nodal pain and swollen Spine is applied to the swollen nodes.
95. Siudi (N/Th) W Euphorbia spp. Shrub Euphorbiaceae Malpighiales Latex and spine Ripening (Pila) Latex is applied to the infected part.
96. Suryamukhi (N/Th) C Helianthus annuus Herb Asteraceae Asterales Leaf Fever Leaf decoction is used in fever.
97. Tamatar (N/Th) C Lycopersicum esculentum Climber Solanaceae Solanales Bud Wound Applied after grinded finely.
98. Titekareli (N/Th) C Momordica charantia Climber Cucurbitaceae Cucurbitales Leaf and fruits Babasheer, BP patients, fever and diabetes In mixing with piper, mircha and older sweets.
99. Titepati(N/Th) W Artemisia vulgaris Herb Compositae Asterales Leaf Fever and skin diseases Leaf paste is applied.
100. Tori(N/Th) C Brassica comprestis Herb Brassicaceae Brassicales Oil Stomach pain Eaten in mixing with vegetables
101. Tulasi(N/Th) C/W Ocimum tenuiflorum Herb Lamiaceae Lamiales Leaf and fruit Common cold, cough, Eaten by adding in a teacup.
102. Ukhu(N)/ Ginna (Th) C Saccharum officinarum Shrub Poaceae Poales Stem Jaundice Eaten orally.
103. Vada (Th) W Cyperus rotundus Herb Cyperaceae Poales Root #Janai rog Root paste is mixed with oil and then applied.

Where, N=Nepali name, Th=Tharu name, N/Th= Nepali and Tharu name and #=Particular Tharu terms

Discussion

In this study we documented the traditional medicinal organisms that are being used by TEG. A total of 22 animal species including 20 families which they used in treating 25 different ailments among them 68.18% were wild species, 27.27% were domesticated and 4.55% belongs to other, and 103 plant species used in treating 86 different ailments among them 51 were herbs, 28 species were trees, 13 were shrubs, and 11 were climber, were collected and documented. Most of the animal species used belongs to class Mammalia followed by Aves. The study analyzed 51 plants are being used for treating single ailment and remaining 52 species of plants are used for treating more than one ailment. In this study it is found that leaf is the highly used part of plants for the purpose of medicine to cure different ailments at local level using their own IK which they are learning since very long ago through an oral transmission way of transferring knowledge and also through ‘hit and trial’ method.

The mostly used plant part is leaf and followed by other parts such as root, fruit, rhizome or sometimes whole of the plant is also used which agrees with the (Singh and Hamal, 2013; Kumar, Singh and Bharati, 2013) but this is not in agree with the results published by (Limbu and Rai, 2013). They noticed the maximum use of root parts than leaf and others while their study among Limbus. The plants that are documented in this study belong mostly to herbs and is also in agreed with (Limbu and Rai, 2013). Most of the plant species that are being used are of cultivated type and lesser are of wild type but some of the plants are also of both the types that is cultivated as well as wild. Also, most of the animal species that were documented are of wild type than domesticated.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Finally we can conclude that TEG is the rich ethnic group from the ethnobiological point of view. They are being used this practice of healing different ailments at locally since very long ago. A total of 22 animal species including 20 families which they used in treating 25 different ailments among them 68.18% were wild species, 27.27% were domesticated and 4.55% belongs to other, and 103 plant species used in treating 86 different ailments among them 51 were herbs, 28 species were trees, 13 were shrubs, and 11 were climber, were collected and documented. Most of the plants used were cultivated type and the part used mostly is leaf. Most plants used belong to herbs while most animals belong to the class Mammalia and second to it is Aves. Due to the reason that they lack the knowledge of conservation and the continuation of this vast indigenous knowledge, it is not free from the verge of extinction in the days to come. Therefore, necessary conservation from the concerned agencies is immediately needed to conserve this vast majority of knowledge.