Sargassum polycystum C. Ag., is an intertidal algal flora of Visakhapatnam coast. Seasonal growth behaviour was observed throughout the year in the four areas studied i.e., Jodugullapalem, Visakhapatnam, Gangavaram and Pudimadaka in the Visakhapatnam coast for two and half years (December 1995 to May 1998). Young and erect fronds are developed from the perennial holdfast in the month of March/April. Rapid increase in the mean length of erect fronds was observed from May onwards and they attain maximum size in November/December and January. Sargassum polycystum analysed from different localities and the mean length of the fronds varied slightly due to variations in the four sites. Plants of sheltered habitat, at Jodugullapalem were taller than those in more exposed habitats at Visakhapatnam and Pudimadaka. The appearance bushiness of these plants also varied in sheltered and exposed habitats. Fruiting plants with receptacles were found seasonally for 3 to 4 months from November to February in Sargassum polycystum. The percentage of fruiting plants varied during the fruiting season and maximum number of fertile plants were found in the month of December/January. Sargassum polycystum analysed from different localities and the Fruiting plants varied slightly due to variations in the four sites.
Job satisfaction is a multifaceted phenomenon and it affects nurses’ productivity and performance, cost saving, quality of patient care, patient safety, commitment to the organization and the profession. Besides, job dissatisfaction affects to the rate of absenteeism, turnover, intent to leave and migration. No studies have conducted to study the predictability of organizational structure and leadership form of nurse managers on nurses’ job satisfaction in Sri Lanka. The objective of this study was to examine the level of job satisfaction among nurses in a government hospital in the central province, Sri Lanka and to assess the predictability of organizational structure and leadership of nurse managers on job satisfaction among nurses. The sample consisted of 160 registered nurses in government hospital in the central province in Sri Lanka and completed measures on the job satisfaction (McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale), organizational structure (Alexander Structure Instrument) and perceived leadership form of nurse managers (Perceived Leadership Form Questionnaire). The results of the study showed that this sample of nurses was moderately satisfied with their job. Further, transformational leadership form of nurse mangers explained 32.9% of predictability in job satisfaction among nurses. The results suggest that transformational leadership form of nurse mangers as an important predictor of nurses’ job satisfaction. These findings also serve as foundation knowledge for developing strategies to enhance job satisfaction among nurses.
The traditional medicine involves the use of different plant extracts or the bioactive constituents. Phytochemical constituents are responsible for medicinal and antimicrobial activity of plant species. This type of study provides the health application at affordable cost. Hence the present study involves extraction and phytochemical analysis of leaves and stem bark extract of Terminalia arjuna and Tecomella undulata belonging to the family Combretaceae, and Bignoniaceae respectively. A qualitative phytochemical analysis was performed to check the presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, steroids, volatile oil, fat, tannin, carbohydrate, saponin and flavonoids in the selected plant species. Plant extracts were obtained by successive extraction of leaf and stem bark powder in soxhlet apparatus by using a series from non polar (petroleum ether) to polar (water) solvents. The samples were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening by adopting standard methodology. Observation revealed the presence of several secondary metabolites in various organic solvents of leaves and stem bark extracts. Therefore, leaves and stem bark extracts of the selected plants may serve as a good source of constituents of useful drugs and may also be used for the preparation of herbal biocontrol agents against plant pathogens.
The process of design, construction and operation of sewage treatment plant (STP) requires multi disciplinary approach. Numerous conventional methods are available for design of sewage treatment plants. The process involved in these treatments is either aerobic, anaerobic or combination requiring number of mechanical and electrical items thereby requiring substantial energy. The ever growing need of energy makes the design, operation and maintenance of STP a challenging task. The conventional method of sewage treatment can be made efficient by advanced technologies and intelligent supervision. However, root zone technology developed by National Environmental Engineering Research Institute treats the sewage. It is found from the study carried out on nine STPs at various locations, it uses only 20% of the energy as compared to conventional sewage treatment plants.
Gene mutation in DRD3 is one of the causes for Schizophrenia. The amino acid sequences are retrieved; their 3D structures were determined by homology modelling. The 3D structures of the compounds of Valeriana wallichii and Acorus calamus were sketched using Chemsketch & converted to 3D. Using Glide →Ligand Docking module of Maestro the best interacting compound (from Valeriana wallichii, Asparagus racemosus and Acorus calamus) with DRD3 protein is selected as the potential ligand.
Recently Fast dissolving oral drug delivery systems are the most advanced form of oral solid dosage form due to more flexibility and comfort. It improve the efficacy of active pharmaceutical ingredients by dissolving within minute in oral cavity after the contact with less saliva as compared to fast dissolving tablets, without chewing and no need of water for administration. Traditional tablets and capsules administered with an 8-oz. glass of water may be inconvenient or impractical for some patients. For example, a very elderly patient may not be able to swallow a daily dose of antidepressant. An eight year- old with allergies could use a more convenient dosage form than antihistaminic syrup. A schizophrenic patient in the institutional setting can hide a conventional tablet under his or her tongue to avoid their daily dose of an atypical antipsychotic. For these complications the new approach may be convenient for patients.
Pharmacogenomics is the study of genetic differences responsible for the variability in response to drugs & metabolism among individual patients. The main interest or application of Pharmacogenomics is to permit the drugs to be tailor-made for every individual and adapted to each person’s own genetic makeup, so that making a way for creating personalized drugs with greater efficacy and safety.This review aims to provide an overview of the value and scope of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine in a developing country with severe health resource crunch and offers insights for the potential impact of this field on the safe and effective use of medications with its future prospects and challenges in a health set-up like India.