Volume 1 – Issue 1

Title : Hepatoprotective and histopathological Activity of Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of stem of Aloe vera Linn (Ghee gangwar) against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats
Authors : Hena .,Pallavi Tiwari,Mayank Srivastava,Saurav Ghoshal

 a major medicinal plant when it comes to treating and protecting the skin. Used externally, it is very effective on burns and sunburn, as well as a variety of skin diseases (eczema, pruritus, psoriasis, acne) – it is extremely constructive and protective. Root contains resinous matter and fat. It is used as Stomachic hepato-biliary affections etc. The present research was aimed to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective activity of ethanol and aqueous extracts of stem using in vivo models to validate the folkloric use of the plant. Materials and methods: The hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of stem were studied on male albino wistar rats, liver damage induced by paracetamol (2.5gm/kg, p.o.) by monitoring biochemical parameters. Various biochemical parameters were studied to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanol and aqueous extracts in serum like glutamic pyruvic transaminase (sGPT), serum glutamic  oxaloacetic transaminase (sGOT) and serum alkaline phosphatase (sALP), total bilirubin (sB), total protein, total cholesterol and histopathological changes in liver were also studied along with silymarin (100mg/kg, p.o.) as standard hepatoprotective agents were determined to assess the effect of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of stem of Aloe vera (100 and 200 mg/kg) on the paracetamol induced hepatic damage. Results: The phytochemical investigation of the extracts showed presence of carbohydrates, proteins, steroids and flavonoids. Pre-treatment of the rats with ethanol and aqueous extracts prior to paracetamol administration caused a significant reduction in the values of sGOT, sGPT, sALP and sB (P<0.01) almost comparable to the silymarin. The hepatoprotective was confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver tissue of control and treated animal.Conclusions: The results indicate that this plant possesses potential hepatoprotective properties and has therapeutic potential for the treatment of liver diseases.

Keywords :
Aloe vera Linn. Paracetamol , hepatoprotective activity , silymarin , histopathology
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Title : Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of amlodipine and rosuvastatin
Authors : Sheetal Buddhadev,Raval Kashyap,Sandip Buddhadev

Fast Dissolving Tablets (FDT)) are most accepted and exploited for the drug delivery for the patients who are having difficulty with swallowing i.e., mainly pediatric’s and Geriatric’s. Amlodipine besylate (ADB) is an anti-hypertensive and it is also used in many Coronary artery diseases, Whereas Rosuvastatin Calcium (RSC) is an anti-hyperlipidemia that prevents of Atheroma. The aim of the paper was to formulate a combined oral dosage form of amlodipine besylate and rosuvastatin calcium into fast dissolving tablet using three super disintegrants such as Croscarmellose Sodium (CCS), Cross povidone (CP), Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG) at various concentrations to enhance the disintegration and dissolution of ADB and RSC to improve bioavailability of the drugs. The tablets were prepared by using direct compression method and evaluated for weight variations, Hardness, Friability, Wetting time, Disintegration time and Dissolution study. Prepared tablets are subject to FT-IR Study for Characterization and compatibility study. No Chemical interaction between drug and excipients were indicated in the FT-IR. Disintegration and dissolution profiles decreases with addition of super disintegrating agents like Croscarmellose Sodium (CCS), Cross povidone (CP), Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG). Among all the formulation FD6 with CP in 10% and SSG 5% Concentration found to be best in drug release profile. The results showed that super disintegrants used in combinations shows better disintegrating property. Among all formulations, promising formulation FD6 showed good wetting time (26 sec), fastest disintegration time (55 sec) and maximum drug release of 99.89% within 5 minutes.

Keywords : Fast Dissolving Tablets Amlodipine besylate Rosuvastatin Calcium Super disintegrants Direct
compression method
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Title : The Bioactive Compounds obtained from the Papaya (Carica papaya) act as Potential Anticancer agents against the Human Prostate cancer cell line DU-145
Authors : Asish Bhaumik,Swapna M,Sucharitha M,Devika K,Ashwini Kumari N

The papaya is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, the sole species in the genus Carica of the plant family Caricaceae. The papaya is a large, tree-like plant, with a single stem growing from 5 to 10 m (16 to 33 ft) tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne.It consists of high content of zeaxthin, proteolytic enzymes like papain and chymo papain, vitmin K, β-carotene, other phytoconstituents like polyphenols, sugars, aromatic amino acids and sulphur containing amino acids, phytosterols, starch and nutrients e. g P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Mg etc and had good health protective effects. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the anticancer activity of various extracts of fruit of Carica papaya against Human Prostate cancer cell line DU-145. DU-145 and PC3 human prostate cancer cell lines are the “classical” cell lines of prostatic cancer DU145 cells have moderate metastatic potential compared to PC3 cells which have high metastatic potential The DU145 cell line was derived from brain metastasis. SRB assay was used to analyze the cell growth inhibition. From the present studied it had been displayed that CFE, ELE and MLE, all were exhibiting the potential capability to kill the cancer cell when compared with standard drug 5-FU. The cell growth inhibition by various extracts of fruit of Carica papaya was varied due to the presence of varying concentration of bioactive compounds. CFE had displayed the highest cell growth inhibition (94.52 %) at 6.25 μg (IC 50= 2.2 μg/ml) due to the presence of polyphenols (flavanoids), ELE with the 93.83% growth inhibition at 6.25 μg (IC50= 2.4μg/ml) and MLE with the 92.80% % growth inhibition at 6.25 μg (IC 50 = 2.6 μg/ml).

Keywords : Zeaxthin , Phytoconstituents , DU-145 , Metastatic potential , SRB , IC50
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Title : Exploration of Bioactive Screening against the Microbial Organisms from the two Different Chrysanthemum Medicnal plant Flower with two Assorted Extracts
Authors : S. Sujatha,Gowri Prakash,Vinayak k

Chrysanthemum plant is an ayurvedic important medicinal plant, and modern systems of medicine, flowers are the most important part in the field for preparation of various drugs. The present study aimed to focused objective was to study the two flower extracts with methanol and ethanol solvents and its antimicrobial activity both bacteria (Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas strains) and fungi (Candida species). When the C. indicum plant leaf extract treated with the experimental organisms of three strains Pseudomonas strains clearly showed that the maximum and minimum zone of inhibition was noticed on PA-38, 8±1.38 and PA- 37, 4±0.11. Similarly, ethanolic extract illustrated that the higher activity of this strain PA-39, 11±2.68 as well as PA-38, revealed the observed the value of 9±0.65 minimum effect on ethanolic extract. While, the C. cinerariaefolium ethanolic flower extract was treated with three different strains of Pseudomonas maximum similar zone of inhibition was noticed against PA-37 (10 ±2.75) and PA-38 (10 ±2.65). It was statistically significant as well as highest response when compared with Ciprofloxacin. Amoung the two plants C. indicum possessed excellent antimicrobial activity on both bacteria and fungi than the C. cinerariaefolium plant leaf. Subsequently the present research analyzed flower of the C. indicum plant by GC-MS techniques in order to determine the majority compounds. Totally 18 compounds were analyzed, amoung the 18 analytes camphor is an important peak compound also it contains 19.5 and 0.60% retention time and abundance respectively. Furthermore C. indicum possessed second most compound is Isoborneol, it was probably noticed 0.410% of abundance and its retention time is 17.5. Additionally two compounds also been observed as a sub peak level such as γ- Cadinene Methyl ester and Chrysanthenol. Hence, the current result clearly showed that the C. indicum plant flower is act as a very good potential antimicrobial agent.

Keywords : Chrysanthemum indicum (Linn.) Ethanol , Methanol , antimicrobial activity
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Title : Bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern isolated from urinary tract infection in a tertiary care centre.
Authors : Deepti Chaurasia,Rakesh Kumar Shrivastava ,S. K. Shrivastava,Deepak Dubey,M. C. Songra

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) remains the most common bacterial infection in human population. The squealae of complicated UTIs are substantial. It is well established that in the presence of obstruction, calculus, Diabetes mellitus, and other risk factors, UTIs can lead to progressive renal damage. The aim of this study was to determine bacterial agents responsible for urinary tract infection and to evaluate their susceptibility pattern. Urine sample was cultured on Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) media by calibrated loop technique. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby bauer disc diffusion method. Out of 320 samples, 155 samples revealed growth of one type of bacteria, and 15 showed growth of 2 types of bacteria. E. Coli was most common bacteria (115/185=62.16%) followed by other nenterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas and a few gram positive cocci. Many bacteria were found to be multidrug resistant while most of gram negative bacteria were susceptible to Imipenem, and most of gram positive bacteria were susceptible to linezolid.

Keywords : Uropathogens , significant bacteriuria
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Title : Analysis of Trends in LSCS Rate and Indications of LSCS- A Study in a Medical College Hospital GMERS, Sola, Ahmedabad
Authors : nikhil anand,ajesh desai,vijay kansara,seema patel,riddhi patel,bhumika kagathra

Objectives: To analyze trends in the LSCS rate and to analyze the indications of LSCS in modern day practice. Place and duration: The study was carried out over a period of seven months (from June 2013 to December 2013) at GMERS medical college, sola, Ahmedabad. Methodology: Total no of patients delivered were counted and total no. of LSCS done was found. For the LSCS patients, parameters like elective or emergency, parity status, indications of LSCS, were noted and analyzed. Result: Frequency of LSCS in the study period was 25.18%. The indications of LSCS in order of frequency were previous one LSCS in 173 (42.09%) patients, followed by fetal distress in 45 (10.94%). failure to progress in 45 (10.94%),previous 2 LSCS in 28(6.81%),CPD and Breech in 26 cases(6.32%)each, mal-presentation & PIH in 8(1.94%) cases each, antepartum haemorrhage in 10 (2.43%). twin in 7 (1.7%) and oligoamnios and/or IUGR in 16(3.89%). Conclusion: LSCS rate is higher than advised by WHO and previous LSCS is the commonest indication followed by fetal distress. Obstetrical audit will help us a lot in reducing the rate.

Keywords : Caesarean rate , previous LSCS , indications
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Title : Habitat influences the Seasonal growth, fruiting behaviour in Sargassum polycystum C.Agardh. (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) at Visakhapatnam coast, India.
Authors : S. B. Padal,Danga Appa Rao,Gaddam Subbarangaiah

Sargassum polycystum C. Ag., is an intertidal algal flora of Visakhapatnam coast. Seasonal growth behaviour was observed throughout the year in the four areas studied i.e., Jodugullapalem, Visakhapatnam, Gangavaram and Pudimadaka in the Visakhapatnam coast for two and half years (December 1995 to May 1998). Young and erect fronds are developed from the perennial holdfast in the month of March/April. Rapid increase in the mean length of erect fronds was observed from May onwards and they attain maximum size in November/December and January. Sargassum polycystum analysed from different localities and the mean length of the fronds varied slightly due to variations in the four sites. Plants of sheltered habitat, at Jodugullapalem were taller than those in more exposed habitats at Visakhapatnam and Pudimadaka. The appearance bushiness of these plants also varied in sheltered and exposed habitats. Fruiting plants with receptacles were found seasonally for 3 to 4 months from November to February in Sargassum polycystum. The percentage of fruiting plants varied during the fruiting season and maximum number of fertile plants were found in the month of December/January. Sargassum polycystum analysed from different localities and the Fruiting plants varied slightly due to variations in the four sites.

Keywords :
Seasonal growth , Fruiting behaviour varies , different localities , Visakhapatnam coast , Sargassum polycystum
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Title : Predicting Factors of Job Satisfaction among Nurses in Sri Lanka
Authors : H. D. W. T. Damayanthi, O. Wichaikhum,R. Chontawan

Job satisfaction is a multifaceted phenomenon and it affects nurses’ productivity and performance, cost saving, quality of patient care, patient safety, commitment to the organization and the profession. Besides, job dissatisfaction affects to the rate of absenteeism, turnover, intent to leave and migration. No studies have conducted to study the predictability of organizational structure and leadership form of nurse managers on nurses’ job satisfaction in Sri Lanka. The objective of this study was to examine the level of job satisfaction among nurses in a government hospital in the central province, Sri Lanka and to assess the predictability of organizational structure and leadership of nurse managers on job satisfaction among nurses. The sample consisted of 160 registered nurses in government hospital in the central province in Sri Lanka and completed measures on the job satisfaction (McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale), organizational structure (Alexander Structure Instrument) and perceived leadership form of nurse managers (Perceived Leadership Form Questionnaire). The results of the study showed that this sample of nurses was moderately satisfied with their job. Further, transformational leadership form of nurse mangers explained 32.9% of predictability in job satisfaction among nurses. The results suggest that transformational leadership form of nurse mangers as an important predictor of nurses’ job satisfaction. These findings also serve as foundation knowledge for developing strategies to enhance job satisfaction among nurses.

Keywords : nurses , job satisfaction , organizational structure , leadership form
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Title : Phytochemical Profiling of Leaves and Stem Bark of Terminalia arjuna and Tecomella undulata
Authors : TAHIRA PARVEEN,Kanika Sharmaa

The traditional medicine involves the use of different plant extracts or the bioactive constituents. Phytochemical constituents are responsible for medicinal and antimicrobial activity of plant species. This type of study provides the health application at affordable cost. Hence the present study involves extraction and phytochemical analysis of leaves and stem bark extract of Terminalia arjuna and Tecomella undulata belonging to the family Combretaceae, and Bignoniaceae respectively. A qualitative phytochemical analysis was performed to check the presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, steroids, volatile oil, fat, tannin, carbohydrate, saponin and flavonoids in the selected plant species. Plant extracts were obtained by successive extraction of leaf and stem bark powder in soxhlet apparatus by using a series from non polar (petroleum ether) to polar (water) solvents. The samples were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening by adopting standard methodology. Observation revealed the presence of several secondary metabolites in various organic solvents of leaves and stem bark extracts. Therefore, leaves and stem bark extracts of the selected plants may serve as a good source of constituents of useful drugs and may also be used for the preparation of herbal biocontrol agents against plant pathogens.

Keywords : Terminalia arjuna , Tecomella undulata , Secondary Metabolites , Phytochemical Analysis
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Title : Root-zone technology as energy efficient and cost effective for sewage water treatment
Authors : Binita Desai,Pratibha Desai

The process of design, construction and operation of sewage treatment plant (STP) requires multi disciplinary approach. Numerous conventional methods are available for design of sewage treatment plants. The process involved in these treatments is either aerobic, anaerobic or combination requiring number of mechanical and electrical items thereby requiring substantial energy. The ever growing need of energy makes the design, operation and maintenance of STP a challenging task. The conventional method of sewage treatment can be made efficient by advanced technologies and intelligent supervision. However, root zone technology developed by National Environmental Engineering Research Institute treats the sewage. It is found from the study carried out on nine STPs at various locations, it uses only 20% of the energy as compared to conventional sewage treatment plants

Keywords : sewage treatment plant , root zone technology , energy-efficient and cost-effective
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Title : Ayurinformatics Selecting the best ligand for Schizophrenic Protein D(3) Dopamine Receptor (DRD3) from the Compounds of Valeriana wallichii, Asparagus racemosus and Acorus calamus
Authors : Preenon Bagchi

Gene mutation in DRD3 is one of the causes for Schizophrenia. The amino acid sequences are retrieved, their 3D structures were determined by homology modelling. The 3D structures of the compounds of Valeriana wallichii and Acorus calamus were sketched using Chemsketch & converted to 3D. Using Glide →Ligand Docking module of Maestro the best interacting compound (from Valeriana wallichii, Asparagus racemosus and Acorus calamus) with DRD3 protein is selected as the potential ligand.

Keywords : Neurotransmitter , Dopamine , G-protein , Schizophrenia , Homology Modelling , Docking , Interaction
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Title : Fast dissolving drug delivery system A novel approach
Authors : Sayani Konar,Avisek Mukhopadhyay

Recently Fast dissolving oral drug delivery systems are the most advanced form of oral solid dosage form due to more flexibility and comfort. It improve the efficacy of active pharmaceutical ingredients by dissolving within minute in oral cavity after the contact with less saliva as compared to fast dissolving tablets, without chewing and no need of water for administration. Traditional tablets and capsules administered with an 8-oz. glass of water may be inconvenient or impractical for some patients. For example, a very elderly patient may not be able to swallow a daily dose of antidepressant. An eight year- old with allergies could use a more convenient dosage form than antihistaminic syrup. A schizophrenic patient in the institutional setting can hide a conventional tablet under his or her tongue to avoid their daily dose of an atypical antipsychotic. For these complications the new approach may be convenient for patients.

Keywords : Fast dissolving tablets (FDT) , Formulation , Excipient
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Title : The foray of Pharmacogenomics-An India perspective
Authors : Pavithra Krishnan,Suma Jayaram

Pharmacogenomics is the study of genetic differences responsible for the variability in response to drugs & metabolism among individual patients. The main interest or application of Pharmacogenomics is to permit the drugs to be tailor-made for every individual and adapted to each person’s own genetic makeup, so that making a way for creating personalized drugs with greater efficacy and safety.This review aims to provide an overview of the value and scope of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine in a developing country with severe health resource crunch and offers insights for the potential impact of this field on the safe and effective use of medications with its future prospects and challenges in a health set-up like India.

Keywords : Pharmacogenomics , India , Personalized medicine , human genome , clinical trials
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